So in the last blog I essentially looked at one of the most basic aspects of EVPN – a multi-site layer-2 network with nothing fancy going on, with traffic forwarding occurring between multiple sites in the same VLAN. The fact of the matter is that there was nothing going on there that you couldn’t do with a traditional VPLS configuration, however the general idea was to demonstrate the basics and take a look at the basic control-plane first.
In this update we’ll be looking at some of the more exclusive and highly useful aspects of EVPNs which make it a very attractive technology for things such as data-centre interconnect, there are a few things which are possible with EVPN which cannot be done with VPLS.
Consider the revised topology:
It’s the same topology from the first blog post, however I’ve simply added an additional VLAN (VLAN 101) to ge-0/0/22 of each EX4200 LAN switch, and an additional IXIA host.
For this post we’re going to look at a rather cool way of performing inter-VLAN forwarding between hosts in VLAN100 and VLAN101. Not that I want to spend time teaching people how to suck eggs, but generally in a simple network with multiple VLANs you have 2 common ways of performing inter-VLAN forwarding:
- Use a good ole’ fashioned router on a stick topology
- Bolt some additional layer-3 functionality onto your layer-2 switch
As everyone knows, the latter method is by far the most common – the vast majority of switches support layer-3 routing functionality, usually in the form of IRB/BVI/SVI depending on the vendor in question.
In a service provider network, where we generally have a number of PE routers acting together as a large distributed switch, providing layer-2 connectivity – the old fashioned way of doing this would be with VPLS. In order to enable inter-VLAN forwarding we’d add a BVI interface to the VPLS instance, this enables a PE to do standard layer-2 switching and route between VLANs at layer-3 – which is very important for data-centre interconnect applications.
EVPN has a number of enhancements which make it more suitable for modern day data-centre interconnect designs, especially where things such as VM mobility are concerned. A company or organisation with a traditional MPLS based network, might require the ability to move hosts around between data centres seamlessly, without causing any real downtime.
Lets take a look at the basic interface configuration and routing-instance configuration:
First things first – lines 1 – 15 take care of the IRB interfaces for VLAN 100 and VLAN 101; more of that shortly.
Lines 16 – 39 form the configuration for the EVPN routing instance, you’ll note a couple of differences from the first EVPN blog post;
- The extended-vlan-list has been increased to include both VLANs within the routing instance
- A new command “default-gateway do-not-advertise” is present under the EVPN protocol configuration
- An additional bridge-domain has been configured for Vlan 101 under the routing-instance, along with the IRB interface for each vlan
- What looks like a totally standard L3VPN has been configured, albeit with different RTs and RDs – but it does contain the IRB interfaces from the EVPN routing instance.
The command “default-gateway do-not-advertise” is used to generate a new extended-community route. If on your PE routers you have different IRB MAC addresses and IPv4 addresses – the PE will generate a “default-gateway route” which tells other PEs in the EVPN that this route is a default-gateway somewhere, however in this example and in best practise – it’s simpler and easier to configure the same IRB MAC/IP on all your PEs, and so the command here is “do-not-advertise” as we don’t need it at this time.
But perhaps the coolest feature and one of the biggest advantages EVPN has over VPLS is the way the IRB interfaces are configured, in this topology the 3x PE routers, (MX5-1, MX5-2 and MX5-3) all have an identical IRB interface configuration for VLAN 100 and VLAN 101, each PE has the exact same IP address, and MAC address…:
The first time you see it, you think:
But it’s true! all the PEs in the network have the exact same IP address and MAC address on their IRB interfaces, why would we do that? and how does it work?
Consider the following scenario:
Imagine a basic data-centre environment running things like VMware or openstack – basically we can provision servers and move them around all over the place using things like VMotion etc. If you can imagine the active server on the left hand portion of the data-centre and business as usual from a networks perspective, arp is learnt between the host and the left hand PE, the default-gateway is 192.168.100.1
Now, imagine that the DC admin flicks the switch, and that active VM on the left is immediately torn down and spun up inside the right hand DC (which could be many miles away) you’ll notice that the interface mac-address and the default-gateway are the same. This gives us the ability to move hosts around our data centres, without having to worry about different default-gateways, or incurring too much downtime whilst we wait for things to re-arp, because everything is identical at each DC site – there’s no problem moving things around between one site or the next.
You cannot do this with VPLS as the implementation demands that you use unique MAC-addresses, which moves us on deeper into the technology – how does EVPN achieve this breakthrough?
It’s essentially boils down to the way that EVPN has been engineered to more closely integrate with the layer-3 world, essentially the software has a number of hooks which go between EVPN and L3VPN in a much more elegant fashion than VPLS, for example in the first blog post – it showed how MAC addresses were learnt and inserted into the BGP control-plane, in this example for Inter-VLAN forwarding, a few extra things are happening:
- Firstly we have the BGP MAC advertisement from the L2 world,
- Secondly, we get a new MAC/IP advertisement containing the PE’s IRB MAC and IP address – this is linked to the PE’s ARP table
- Thirdly, we get a totally standard /32 IPv4 L3VPN route for the host’s /32 address, this is advertised to all remote PEs
Let’s recap a more basic version of the lab diagram and see what the control-plane looks like when we send some traffic between hosts in different VLANs:
Now lets look at the BGP control-plane on MX-1 and see what’s going on:
You’ll immediatley notice that compared to the vanilla L2VPN implementation, there’s a lot more going on – lets break it down,
- Line 6 is the standard MAC advertisement route, the same sort of advertisement we went over with the vanilla standard L2-only version of EVPN – this is for layer-2 connectivity only.
- Line 10 is an EVPN MAC/IP route, which is basically the ARP mapping learnt directly from MX2 – this route makes it possible for all PEs in the network to synchronise their arp tables with each other!
- Line 34 is a standard L3VPN route, containing the /32 host behind MX2
Line 10 essentially means, that as soon as you move a host from one place to another – the moment a packet lands on the ingress PE interface – it generates a new MAC/IP ARP route, and all other PE’s synchronise accordingly, meanwhile the host that’s moved doesn’t need to do anything else – other than keep sending packets at the exact same gateway IP/MAC as it did before it was moved, essentially we have layer-2 and layer-3 working together in harmony.
Line 34 is a standard L3VPN /32 host route for the host behind MX2, this means that if you have EVPN running across numerous data-centres in various places, if this is connected to a wider layer-3 network – such as traditional residential/business PE routers, these other routers don’t need to have any awareness of EVPN whatsoever – so long as they can participate in regular L3VPN then packets will always be delivered to the right place when things get moved around, because these routes are dynamically generated and advertised accordingly. This is a massive advantage over VPLS, as you don’t need to configure it in every corner of the network for it to be useful, it simply lives on your DC edge – the rest is left to vanilla L3VPN.
There are a few more enhancements due at some point soon, including quite an interesting one which is the “MAC mobility extended-community” which is essentially a safeguard to prevent a few rather nasty situations from arising:
- A layer-2 loop, where two PEs constantly advertise the same MAC addresses – which could overwhelm the BGP control-plane
- A situation where a pair of hosts each in a different DC are mis-configured with the same MAC address – if they’re both sending data then each PE will be generating route advertisements,
The MAC mobility extended community drafted in RFC 7432 introduces a sequence number, where if the same route is advertised a certain number of times within a specific period, it’s assumed that something is broken and the routers should perform some sort of damping and alerting procedure to prevent network meltdown.
I hope you found this useful! the next one I’ll be looking at some of the redundant designs including single-active and all-active multi-homing.